SEVERE BLEEDING

EXTERNAL BLEEDING:
1. Apply direct pressure. Place a clean, folded cloth over the injured area and firmly apply pressure. If blood soaks through, do not remove it. Instead, cover that cloth with another one and continue to apply pressure to the wound for 7-10 minutes. If the bleeding is from the ear, place a clean bandage over the ear, lay the victim on his side, and allow the blood to drain out through the bandage.
2. Elevate the injury. Position the wounded part of the body above the level of the heart if possible while you apply direct pressure.
3. Know the pressure points. If direct pressure and elevation do not sufficiently slow the bloodflow, find a pressure point. Large arteries found close to the skin’s surface supply blood to the head and to each arm and leg. The most common pressure points used during first aid are located in the upper arms and in the creases above the upper legs. Apply pressure to the closest pressure point to the wound so that the artery is pressed between your fingers and the bone directly behind the artery. If using the pressure point on a leg, you may need to use the heel of your hand instead of your finger.
4. Resort to a tourniquet. On very rare occasions everything listed above may fail. To prevent the victim from dying, you should apply a tourniquet. Once a tourniquet is applied, it should not be loosened or removed until the victim has reached medical help. Use a tourniquet ONLY if everything listed above has failed. If you use a tourniquet, write down somewhere on the victim the time it was applied, so medical personnel will know how long it has been in place.

INTERNAL BLEEDING:
Internal bleeding results when blood vessels rupture, allowing blood to leak into body cavities. It could be a result of a direct blow to the body, a fracture, a sprain, or a bleeding ulcer. If a victim receives an injury to the chest or abdomen, internal bleeding should be suspected. He will probably feel pain and tenderness in the affected area.
Other symptoms to watch for:
1. cold, clammy skin
2. pale face and lips
3. weakness or fainting
4. dizziness
5. nausea
6. thirstiness
7. rapid, weak, irregular pulse
8. shortness of breath
9. dilated pupils
10. swelling or bruising at the site of injury
The more symptoms that are experienced, the more extensive the internal bleeding is.

WHAT TO DO FOR THE VICTIM:
1. Check for an open airway and begin rescue breathing if necessary.
2. Call for medical help as soon as possible and keep the victim comfortable until help arrives.
3. The victim may rinse his mouth with water, but DO NOT give a victim of internal bleeding anything to drink.

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